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Typically, each body segment has one ganglion on each side, though some ganglia are fused to form the brain and other large ganglia.The head segment contains the brain, also known as the supraesophageal ganglion.The sensory information from these organs is processed by the brain.
Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago.
White matter includes all of the nerves, and much of the interior of the brain and spinal cord.
Grey matter is found in clusters of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and in cortical layers that line their surfaces.
Among the most important functions of glial cells are to support neurons and hold them in place; to supply nutrients to neurons; to insulate neurons electrically; to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons; and to provide guidance cues directing the axons of neurons to their targets.
A very important type of glial cell (oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system) generates layers of a fatty substance called myelin that wraps around axons and provides electrical insulation which allows them to transmit action potentials much more rapidly and efficiently.
It was in the decade of 1960 that we became aware of how basic neuronal networks code stimuli and thus basic concepts are possible (David H. The molecular revolution swept across US universities in the decade of 1980.